Trees do not grow in wriggly tin !

I had a call recently from a customer regarding a tree that did not seem to want to grow, “it just sits there – with its leaves all green but looking bored”.

On my visit a few days later I could see the tree was a couple of years old, planted by the previous owner in a lawn with grass right up to the trunk (not a good start) and the grass, which was rather patchy at best and full of moss, looked  pale and feeble. Further discussion with the client revealed that they had bought the property only six months before and were now looking to develop the garden for fruit and vegetables, some further investigation was needed.

So with spade in hand we dug up the tree carefully, the poor thing had made no progress with new roots to establish itself in the ground, so we dug further.

In an area the size of a normal planting hole (2ft x 2ft) we found 18 bricks some wriggly tin and a layer of compacted clinker, under that a set of footings for what may have been an old ‘outhouse’, by this time the hole had enlarged to 4ft square. The only thing we did not find was any soil of any type for the tree to grow in.

With the best will in the world its not fair to ask a tree to grow in those conditions and I wonder what the original ‘tree planter’ was thinking would happen – or is it just a case of lack of knowledge? Had that person been given the right advice before, would they have done the work to prepare the ground for the tree to prosper.

The remedy for this site came in the form of  large yellow digger and a trailer ,which carted away 15 tons of the old rubble and brickwork,to be replaced by drainage and topsoil. There, in due course we will plant another tree – or two !

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Grapevine Planting / pruning – a quick guide

This is a brief post with a link to the full article, hopefully it may explain a few of the ways to grow a grapevine.

www.readsnursery.co.uk/grapevine-care/

GRAPEVINE CULTIVATION

There is a grape variety to suit most situations and they can be grown indoors, outdoors or in a pot for fruit production or decorative purposes.

Planting Outdoors

Grapevines are happy to grow in a wide range of soil types providing they are deep and free draining with a pH of around 6.5-7.0. Drainage is very important and attention must be given to this issue if the soil is poor draining .

Grapes need is a sunny sheltered aspect. Water is very important to a vine and even an established vine will need additional water in the growing season. It must be emphasised again – water logging in winter is a major contributing factor to the failure of a vine.

Where planted against a wall leave a gap of 18 inches /45 cm to keep the roots away from the dry spot at the base of the wall, using a cane to tie the vine to for additional support while it is establishing.

Wires will need fixing to the wall for support every 12-15 inches /30cm,use spacers to keep the wire away from the wall creating an air gap.

Planting Indoors

There are differing opinions regarding vines for the greenhouse. It really does not matter if grape is planted outside the greenhouse and fed inside or if it is planted inside. The advantage to outside planting is that the plant requires less water but an inside planted vine has the advantage of an earlier start into growth. A strong support system will be required .

Planting In Pots

The ideal growing medium for grapes in pots is John Innes No3. Plant in a wide bottomed pot as this adds to the stability and it will not blow over as easily. Remember to crock the pot well and place in a good sunny spot. Winter protection will be needed either by placing in a cold greenhouse or wrapping the pot to protect the root ball.

Pruning

This can be described as an extremely complex subject, but it actually isn’t, pruning vines is a very simple logical process.

There are two main methods for home gardeners to consider; drawn here for simplicity of explanation, there is also a video – here.

Spur Pruning for European ( vitis vinifera) greenhouse grapevines such as Black Hamburgh and Muscat Alexandria also used when growing over a pergola perhaps.

Full article and sketches available via the link above.

A quick guide to fruit tree rootstocks

Rootstocks and their effects on tree size.

Apple rootstocks

Nearly all commercial apple trees are grafted or budded onto rootstocks, which determine the size of the eventual tree. Knowing which rootstock is needed, and matching it to the soil and the size you want, enable a tree to be productive and healthy.

Most of the important rootstocks for apples were derived from material collected by East Malling Research Station, UK, in the early 1900s. Researchers collected and characterised the stocks developed by growers during the preceding centuries in Europe. Each one was given a number, preceded by M.

In 1917 The Malling Research Station joined forces with the John Innes Institute at Merton to breed some aphid-resistant rootstocks: the MM101-115 series.

A later development has been the cleaning up of some of these stocks (in conjunction with the Long Ashton research station) to produce virus-free stocks. These are prefixed by the letters EMLA (East Malling – Long Ashton).

In the notes below, M denotes a Malling rootstock, MM denotes a Malling-Merton hybrid.

M27 – Very small indeed, around half the size of M9. Tree needs full support. Fruit size reduced slightly. Moribund in wet soils. Very little pruning is required once the tree is full size (around 5ft/1.5m high; producing perhaps 20 apples a year). It’s OK in pots.

M9 – The best known dwarfing rootstock. It is a cross between a French tree, “Jaune de Metz”, and the “Paradise” apple of ancient Persia. It is known as the “Paradise” stock of Europe. It fruits when very young, is fairly hardy, tolerant of wet but not drought, and compatible with all apple scions. It has to be staked strongly, its roots are slightly brittle, and it is about 8-9ft/2.4-2.7m tall at maturity on an ideal soil.

M26 – A cross of M9 and M16. Used in irrigated orchards on well-drained solis. Fruits early in its life, needs permanent staking, hardy. Susceptible to crown rot and fireblight. M26 is not so good in wet, clay soils where it is rather moribund. Produces burr knots – the beginnings of little aerial roots – which attract pests and which can compromise the tree. These can be sliced off carefully in the garden situation. Planting deeper (so less rootstock is exposed) helps solve the problem commercially. Reaches about 8-10ft/2.4-3m if unpruned. OK in pots.

MM106 – A hydbid of Northern Spy (English dessert apple) and English Broadleaf. Well anchored, fruits early in its life, few suckers, fruit matures late, trees have a long season, OK in pots with less vigorous varieties. Susceptible to crown and root rot. Recommended as a substitute for M26 in wet, cold soil as a little more vigorous. Semidwarf. 9-11ft/2.7-3.3m high. Resistant to woolly aphid.

MM111 – Northern Spy hybrid. About 75% of full size; too large for small gardens. Prone to burr knots. 10-12ft/3-3.6m. Semi-dwarfing or half-standard. Resistant to woolly aphid.

M2 – Very similar in size and vigour to MM111. Not quite so vigorous as M25.

M25 – Full size tree; avoid unless you have a large space in which to grow it. Very vigorous; typically 12-15ft high; can be bigger depending on variety; large, heavy, spreading tree.

SEEDLING TREES – OWN ROOTS

Trees grown from pips are usually M111 size or larger and extremely hardy. Some decorative crabs on their own roots are about the size of MM106 but others (especially native English green-fruited crabs) are enormous.

Cherry rootstocks

Colt – Semi vigorous – 13-16ft/4-5m. Fully compatible with all varieties, Considered very productive until the arrival of Gisela; still good for bush and half-standard cherries on thin soils.

Gisela 5. – Dwarf, 40% of height of Colt. Ideal for commercial orchards, gardens and patio pots.The best garden choice for Cherry Trees.

Pear rootstocks

Compatibility – it should be noted that there are many incompatible varieties when grafted onto Quince (especially Quince C). In these instances a suitable interstock should be used such as Beurre Hardy or Doyenne du Comice. The latter will also impart some resistance to Fireblight.

Pyrus communis (Seedling pear) – Very vigorous. More suitable for half standard and especially standard trees.

Quince ‘A’ – Semi Dwarf. The ideal rootstock for bush trees.

Quince ‘C’ – Dwarf and slightly earlier into cropping.

Pyrodwarf – Limited availability as yet  but this one is proving more compatible with Perry pears and others

Rootstocks for Plums, Gages, Damsons & Mirabelles

Brompton – Vigorous, very suitable for standards, does not sucker and fully compatible with all varieties unlike its predecessors such as Myrobalan.

St. Julien ‘A’ – Semi vigorous. This is fully compatible with all plums, damsons, gages, peaches, nectarines and apricots and many ornamental prunus species. Good yield influence. Not suitable for poorly drained soils.

Pixy – Dwarf and ideal for size containment in the garden. On very strong soils it still has commercial use for strong growing, shy cropping varieties such as Marjories, Avalon and Excalibur. Not recommended for Victoria.